Monday, July 1, 2013

~Practical Application of immunology~

1-Vaccine Production.                                                        

   (Vaccines boosts and activates the immune system and produces immunity)
2-Production of Monoclonal antibodies.
   (Product of a single hybridoma reacts with the same epitope on antigens.used for diagnostic and immunotherapy)
3-Immunodiffusion Test.
  ( Precipitation reactions involve the reaction of soluble antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies to form large, interlocking molecular aggregates)
4-Haemagglutination Test)
   (Hemagglutination reactions are used in blood typing, the diagnosis of certain diseases, and the identification of viruses by HA,HI test.)
5-Agglutination Test.
  (Antibodies react With epitopes on antigens to give agglutination)
6-Neutralization reactions.
  (Neutralization is an antigen- antibody reaction in which the harmful effects of a bacterial exotoxin or  a virus are blocked by specific antibodies.)
7-Complement fixation test.
   (This process of complement fixation can be used to detect very small amounts of antibody. Antibodies that do not produce a visible reaction, such as precipitation or agglutination, can be demonstrated by the fixing of complement.)
8-Fluorescent Antibody technique(FAT).
   (Fluorescent-antibody (FA) techniques can identify microorganisms in clinical specimens(Especially   in tissues) and can  detect the presence of a specific antibody in serum)
9-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).
   (direct ELISA detects antigens, and the indirect ELISA detects antibodies)
  ( Immunoblotting, can be used to identify a specific protein in a mixture.)
    ( For the treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response.)

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