Thursday, July 25, 2013

~Bacterial classification~

Gram (+) Bacilli:
1-Bacillus anthracis
2-Bacillus cereus
3-Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
5-Listeria monocytogenes
Gram (-) Bacilli:
1-Bordetella pertussis 
4- Escherichia coli (E.coli)
Gram (+) Cocci:
1-Staphylococcus aureus 
2-Staphylococcus epidermidis
3-Streptococcus pyogenes
4-Streptococcus pneumoniae
5-Streptococcus mutans
Gram (-) Cocci:
1-Neisseria gonorrhoeae 
2- Neisseria meningitidis 
4-Moraxella catarrhalis
5- Kingella
Capsular Bacteria:
1-Klebsiella pneumoniae
2-Escherichia coli
3-Streptococcus pyogenes
4-Haemophilus influenzae
5-Bacillus megaterium
Flagellum(Motile) Bacteria:
1-Escherichia coli 
2-vibrio cholerae
3- Helicobacter pylori
4-Salmonella enterica
5-Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acid-Fast Bacteria:
1-Mycobacterim tuberculosis
2-Nocardia asteroides
Spore-forming bacteria:
1-Clostridium botulillum
2-Bacillus megaterium.
3-Sporosarcina pasteurii 
4-Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans

Thursday, July 11, 2013

~Practical Apllications of Industrial Microbiology~


2-Food Canning.
3-Production of Antibiotics.
4-Production of Alcoholic Bevarages
5-Dairy Products.
6-Production of Methane.
7-Medical Products like insulin.

Industrial Microbiology and the Future

Microbes have always been exceedingly useful to humankind,even when their existence was unknown. They will remain an essential part of many basic food-processing technologies.
The development of recombinant DNA technology has further intensified interest in industrial microbiology by expanding the potential for new products and applications.As the supplies of fossil energy become more scarce, interest in renewable energy sources, such as hydrogen and ethanol, will increase. The use of specialized microbes to produce such products on an industrial scale will probably become more important. As new biotechnology applications and products enter the marketplace, they will affect our lives and well-being in ways that we can only speculate about today.

Tuesday, July 9, 2013

~Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology by Nduka Okafor~

The field of industrial microbiology has been undergoing rapid change in recent
years. First, what has been described as the ‘cook book’ approach has been largely abandoned for the rational manipulation of microorganisms on account of our increased knowledge of their physiology. Second, powerful new tools and technologies especially genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and such like new areas promise exciting horizons for man’s continued exploitation of microorganisms. Third, new approaches have become available for the utilization of some traditional microbial products such as immobilized enzymes and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for new bioactive chemicals such as antibiotics. Even the search for organisms producing new products has now been broadened to include unculturable organisms which are isolated mainly on genes isolated from the environment. Finally, greater consciousness of the effect of fossil fuels on the environment has increased the call in some quarters for the use of more environmentally friendly and renewable sources of energy, has led to a search for alternate fermentation substrates, exemplified in cellulose, and a return to fermentation production of ethanol and other bulk chemicals. Due to our increased knowledge and changed approach, even our definitions of familiar words, such as antibiotic and species seem to be changing. This book was written to reflect these changes within the context of current practice.

Download Here!

Monday, July 8, 2013

~Veterinary Virology By Murphy, E. Paul J. Gibbs, Marian C. Horzinek, Michael J. Studdert.~

Completely rewritten, this edition has expanded coverage of zoonotic viruses
and the diseases they cause, and viruses and viral diseases of laboratory animals, poultry, fish, and wildlife. The concept of new emerging and reemerging viral diseases reflects the new perspective this concept has brought to veterinary and zoonotic virology and related fields.
Part I presents fundamental principles of virology related to animal infection and disease. Part II details the properties and clinical features of the viruses that afflict animals and describes their treatment and control.

 Download Here!

Monday, July 1, 2013

~Practical Application of immunology~

1-Vaccine Production.                                                        

   (Vaccines boosts and activates the immune system and produces immunity)
2-Production of Monoclonal antibodies.
   (Product of a single hybridoma reacts with the same epitope on antigens.used for diagnostic and immunotherapy)
3-Immunodiffusion Test.
  ( Precipitation reactions involve the reaction of soluble antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies to form large, interlocking molecular aggregates)
4-Haemagglutination Test)
   (Hemagglutination reactions are used in blood typing, the diagnosis of certain diseases, and the identification of viruses by HA,HI test.)
5-Agglutination Test.
  (Antibodies react With epitopes on antigens to give agglutination)
6-Neutralization reactions.
  (Neutralization is an antigen- antibody reaction in which the harmful effects of a bacterial exotoxin or  a virus are blocked by specific antibodies.)
7-Complement fixation test.
   (This process of complement fixation can be used to detect very small amounts of antibody. Antibodies that do not produce a visible reaction, such as precipitation or agglutination, can be demonstrated by the fixing of complement.)
8-Fluorescent Antibody technique(FAT).
   (Fluorescent-antibody (FA) techniques can identify microorganisms in clinical specimens(Especially   in tissues) and can  detect the presence of a specific antibody in serum)
9-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).
   (direct ELISA detects antigens, and the indirect ELISA detects antibodies)
  ( Immunoblotting, can be used to identify a specific protein in a mixture.)
    ( For the treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response.)