Friday, December 6, 2013

~Smartphone to digital microscope conversion~

This DIY conversion stand is more than capable of functioning in an actual laboratory setting. With magnification levels as high as 175x, plant cells and their nuclei are easily observed!   
addition to allowing the


observation of cells, this setup also pr
oduces stunning macro photography.

The cost of this project is just $10 (not counting the smartphone), and it only takes about 20 minutes to build. You can be viewing cells with your smartphone within the hour!
Materials required:

3x 4 ½” x 5/16” carriage bolts
9x 5/16” nuts
3x 5/16” wing nuts
5x 5/16” washers
¾” x 7” x 7” plywood  -- for the base
⅛” x 7” x 7” plexiglass  -- for the camera stage
⅛” x 3” x 7” plexiglass  -- for the specimen stage
laser pointer focus lens
LED click light (necessary only for viewing backlit specimens)


Assorted bits

To get the lens from the laser pointer start by unscrewing the front cone and the back cover of the tube.  Remove the batteries.  Using the eraser end of a pencil, push the innards out of the front of the tube.  The front of this assembly (the side 
without the spring to contact the batteries) is where the focus lens sits.  Unscrew the small black piece of plastic in front of the lens and the lens will come free.                                                                    

Article and Images Courtesy

Saturday, November 23, 2013

~Vaccinology: Principles and Practice. W. John W. Morrow, Nadeem A. Sheikh, Clint S. Schmidt, D. Huw Davies~

Covering all aspects of vaccine research and development in one volume, this authoritative
resource takes a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing not only on basic science, but also on the many stages required to commercialize and navigate the regulatory requirements for human application, both in the United States and Europe.
  • Reviews in detail the process of designing a vaccine, from the initial stages of antigen discovery to human application
  • Includes evaluation of vaccine efficacy and safety
  • Details clinical trial design, including regulatory requirements
  • Discusses the emerging field of active cellular immunotherapy
Vaccinology: Principles and Practice provides an invaluable resource for clinicians, scientific and medical researchers, lecturers and postdoctoral fellows working in the field of vaccines.
Download Here!

Saturday, November 16, 2013

~Cellular and Molecular Immunology by K. Abbas~

An exceptionally lucid guide to the latest immunology concepts! Through five
best-selling editions, readers worldwide have appreciated this book's in-depth yet straightforward, richly illustrated approach to this complex subject. Now, sweeping updates incorporate the latest discoveries about innate immunity, the organization of lymphoid organs, and many other cutting-edge topics. Plus, online access via STUDENT CONSULT makes this an even more powerful learning resource!
Download Here!
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Thursday, August 22, 2013

~Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology John G. Holt ebook~

Based on the data contained in the four-volume Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology,
BMDB-9 also includes new genera and species, new combinations, and new taxa published through the January 1992 issue of the IJSB. Users will find short general descriptions that encompass all organisms by Groups; shape and size, Gram reaction, other pertinent morphological features, motility and flagella, relations to oxygen, basic type of metabolism, carbon and energy sources, habitat and ecology. BMDB-9 also includes discussions of difficulties in identification, keys or tables to genera and species, genus descriptions, synonyms, other nomenclatural changes, and numerous illustrations.
Download Here!
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Monday, August 19, 2013

~Microbial Physiology by Albert G. Moat, John W. Foster, Michael P. Spector ebook~

The Fourth Edition of Microbial Physiology retains the logical, easy-to-follow organization of the
previous editions. An introduction to cell structure and synthesis of cell components is provided, followed by detailed discussions of genetics, metabolism, growth, and regulation for anyone wishing to understand the mechanisms underlying cell survival and growth. This comprehensive reference approaches the subject from a modern molecular genetic perspective, incorporating new insights gained from various genome projects.
Download Here!
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Thursday, July 25, 2013

~Bacterial classification~

Gram (+) Bacilli:
1-Bacillus anthracis
2-Bacillus cereus
3-Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
5-Listeria monocytogenes
Gram (-) Bacilli:
1-Bordetella pertussis 
4- Escherichia coli (E.coli)
Gram (+) Cocci:
1-Staphylococcus aureus 
2-Staphylococcus epidermidis
3-Streptococcus pyogenes
4-Streptococcus pneumoniae
5-Streptococcus mutans
Gram (-) Cocci:
1-Neisseria gonorrhoeae 
2- Neisseria meningitidis 
4-Moraxella catarrhalis
5- Kingella
Capsular Bacteria:
1-Klebsiella pneumoniae
2-Escherichia coli
3-Streptococcus pyogenes
4-Haemophilus influenzae
5-Bacillus megaterium
Flagellum(Motile) Bacteria:
1-Escherichia coli 
2-vibrio cholerae
3- Helicobacter pylori
4-Salmonella enterica
5-Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acid-Fast Bacteria:
1-Mycobacterim tuberculosis
2-Nocardia asteroides
Spore-forming bacteria:
1-Clostridium botulillum
2-Bacillus megaterium.
3-Sporosarcina pasteurii 
4-Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans

Thursday, July 11, 2013

~Practical Apllications of Industrial Microbiology~


2-Food Canning.
3-Production of Antibiotics.
4-Production of Alcoholic Bevarages
5-Dairy Products.
6-Production of Methane.
7-Medical Products like insulin.

Industrial Microbiology and the Future

Microbes have always been exceedingly useful to humankind,even when their existence was unknown. They will remain an essential part of many basic food-processing technologies.
The development of recombinant DNA technology has further intensified interest in industrial microbiology by expanding the potential for new products and applications.As the supplies of fossil energy become more scarce, interest in renewable energy sources, such as hydrogen and ethanol, will increase. The use of specialized microbes to produce such products on an industrial scale will probably become more important. As new biotechnology applications and products enter the marketplace, they will affect our lives and well-being in ways that we can only speculate about today.

Tuesday, July 9, 2013

~Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology by Nduka Okafor~

The field of industrial microbiology has been undergoing rapid change in recent
years. First, what has been described as the ‘cook book’ approach has been largely abandoned for the rational manipulation of microorganisms on account of our increased knowledge of their physiology. Second, powerful new tools and technologies especially genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and such like new areas promise exciting horizons for man’s continued exploitation of microorganisms. Third, new approaches have become available for the utilization of some traditional microbial products such as immobilized enzymes and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for new bioactive chemicals such as antibiotics. Even the search for organisms producing new products has now been broadened to include unculturable organisms which are isolated mainly on genes isolated from the environment. Finally, greater consciousness of the effect of fossil fuels on the environment has increased the call in some quarters for the use of more environmentally friendly and renewable sources of energy, has led to a search for alternate fermentation substrates, exemplified in cellulose, and a return to fermentation production of ethanol and other bulk chemicals. Due to our increased knowledge and changed approach, even our definitions of familiar words, such as antibiotic and species seem to be changing. This book was written to reflect these changes within the context of current practice.

Download Here!

Monday, July 8, 2013

~Veterinary Virology By Murphy, E. Paul J. Gibbs, Marian C. Horzinek, Michael J. Studdert.~

Completely rewritten, this edition has expanded coverage of zoonotic viruses
and the diseases they cause, and viruses and viral diseases of laboratory animals, poultry, fish, and wildlife. The concept of new emerging and reemerging viral diseases reflects the new perspective this concept has brought to veterinary and zoonotic virology and related fields.
Part I presents fundamental principles of virology related to animal infection and disease. Part II details the properties and clinical features of the viruses that afflict animals and describes their treatment and control.

 Download Here!

Monday, July 1, 2013

~Practical Application of immunology~

1-Vaccine Production.                                                        

   (Vaccines boosts and activates the immune system and produces immunity)
2-Production of Monoclonal antibodies.
   (Product of a single hybridoma reacts with the same epitope on antigens.used for diagnostic and immunotherapy)
3-Immunodiffusion Test.
  ( Precipitation reactions involve the reaction of soluble antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies to form large, interlocking molecular aggregates)
4-Haemagglutination Test)
   (Hemagglutination reactions are used in blood typing, the diagnosis of certain diseases, and the identification of viruses by HA,HI test.)
5-Agglutination Test.
  (Antibodies react With epitopes on antigens to give agglutination)
6-Neutralization reactions.
  (Neutralization is an antigen- antibody reaction in which the harmful effects of a bacterial exotoxin or  a virus are blocked by specific antibodies.)
7-Complement fixation test.
   (This process of complement fixation can be used to detect very small amounts of antibody. Antibodies that do not produce a visible reaction, such as precipitation or agglutination, can be demonstrated by the fixing of complement.)
8-Fluorescent Antibody technique(FAT).
   (Fluorescent-antibody (FA) techniques can identify microorganisms in clinical specimens(Especially   in tissues) and can  detect the presence of a specific antibody in serum)
9-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).
   (direct ELISA detects antigens, and the indirect ELISA detects antibodies)
  ( Immunoblotting, can be used to identify a specific protein in a mixture.)
    ( For the treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response.)

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

~Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition~

The new 12th edition of Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology solidifies its reputation as
the classic text in the field of microbiology. This new edition features the same comprehensive, authoritative content - and adds new and updated material throughout. The team of authors includes three well-respected clinical microbiologists, all of whom have experience both in the classroom and the clinical laboratory.
A respected author team consists of three well-respected clinical microbiologists, each of whom has experience both in the classroom and the clinical laboratory.
Genera and Species to be Considered highlight all of the organisms to be discussed in each chapter, including the current name of the species as well as any previous names.
Detailed hands-on procedures make the content more interesting and relevant by describing exactly what takes place in the micro lab.
Convenient, easy-to-read tables summarize key information.
A glossary of all of the terms is found at the back of the book for quick reference.
Three NEW chapters:
General Considerations and Applications of Information Provided in Bacterial Sections of Part III explains explains the criteria for organism inclusion and how it should be used.
Bacterial Identification Flow Charts and Schemes: A Guide to Part III includes gram reaction, shape, arrangement, atmosphere preferred, oxidase and catalase reactions, among other decision points for various pathogens, creating a visual method of identifying and cross referencing organisms.
Sentinel Laboratory Response to Bioterrorism
A NEW section on clinical laboratory management
More case studies help to develop critical thinking skills, with answers in an appendix.
More photos of the major organisms have been included to help in identifying different organisms.
                                           Download Here 1 
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~Culture of Animal Cells. A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications by R.Ian Freshney~

The most complete resource on the techniques, equipment, principles, and
practices of animal cell culture, this text offers a complete background related to growth of animal cells in culture. Beginning with laboratory design, safety, validation and bioethics, then continuing with preparation of media, primary culture and cell lines, through to characterization and authentication, contamination, specialized techniques, and troubleshooting, the coverage includes:
An all-new section of training exercises, separated into basic, intermediate, and advanced procedures, cross-referenced to the relevant protocols
New coverage of stem cells, bioethics, validation, cloning, cell signaling, in vitro toxicity testing, and tissue engineering
An expanded full-color atlas section, with images of primary culture, cell lines, subculture, differentiation, cancer cells and transformation, three-dimensional culture, contamination, and specialized equipment
Enhanced treatment of troubleshooting, with full cross-referencing to the relevant protocols and sections of text
Fully updated references
The clearest, most consistent presentation of step-by-step protocols available
Numerous diagrams, photographs, tables, and charts
Detailed and up-to-date information on reagent preparation and sourcing of materials and equipment, including a fully updated list of suppliers and other resources with Web sites
                                            Download Here!
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~Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease byP. J. Quinn, B. K. Markey, F. C. Leonard, P. Hartigan, S. Fanning, E. S. FitzPatrick~

Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students, and since its
first publication in 2002, Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease has become an essential text for students of veterinary medicine. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition updates the subject for pre-clinical and clinical veterinary students in a comprehensive manner. Individual sections deal with bacteriology, mycology and virology. Written by an academic team with many years of teaching experience, the book provides concise descriptions of groups of microorganisms and the diseases which they cause. Microbial pathogens are discussed in separate chapters which provide information on the more important features of each microorganism and its role in the pathogenesis of diseases of animals. The international and public health significance of these pathogens are reviewed comprehensively. The final section is concerned with the host and is organized according to the body system affected. Tables, boxes and flow diagrams provide information in an easily assimilated format. This edition contains new chapters on molecular diagnostics and on infectious conditions of the skin, cardiovascular system, urinary tract and musculoskeletal system. Many new colour diagrams are incorporated into this edition and each chapter has been updated.
                                          Download Here!

Sunday, June 23, 2013

~Medical Microbiology 25thEdition by Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's.~

Linking fundamental principles with the diagnosis and treatment of microbial
infections, this classic text delivers an essential overview of the roles microorganisms play in human health and illness. In addition to the brief descriptions of the organisms, you'll find vital perspectives on pathogenesis, diagnostic laboratory tests, clinical findings, treatment, and epidemiology.

                         Download Here!
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Thursday, June 20, 2013

~Ian_R._Tizard-Veterinary_Immunology ebook~

Veterinary Immunology: An Introduction has been the veterinary student's book of choice since 1977.
The 7th edition continues this tradition and has the added benefit of full-color photos and important new information. Still an excellent first-level textbook for students of veterinary and comparative medicine, this text also assists veterinarians by informing them about recent developments in immunology as they relate to domestic animals.

                                                                     Download here!

Monday, June 17, 2013

Microbiology An Introduction By Tortora,Funke,Case.ebook.

This No.1 selling non-majors microbiology book is praised for its straightforward
presentation of complex topics, careful balance of concepts and applications, and proven art that teaches. In its Tenth Edition, Tortora/Funke/Case responds to the #1 challenge of the microbiology course: teaching a wide range of reader levels, while still addressing reader under-preparedness. The Tenth Edition meets readers at their respective skill levels.

First, the book signals core microbiology content to readers with the new and highly visual Foundation Figures that readers need to understand before…
 The Microbial World and You, Chemical Principles, Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope, Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, Microbial Metabolism, Microbial Growth, The Control of Microbial Growth, Microbial Genetics, Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA, Classification of Microorganisms, The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea, The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths, Viruses, Viroids, and Prions, Principles of Disease and Epidemiology, Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity, Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host, Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host, Practical Applications of Immunology, Disorders Associated with the Immune System, Antimicrobial Drugs, Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Eyes, Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System, Microbial Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems, Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System, Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System, Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems, Environmental Microbiology, Applied and Industrial Microbiology . Intended for those interested in learning the basics of microbiology.

Sunday, June 16, 2013


Microbiology is defined as
"the study of organisms too
small to be clearly seen by
the unaided eye." These
organisms include viruses,
bacteria, algae, fungi,
archea, and protozoa.The field
of microbiology can be said
to be in its infancy relative
to older biological disciplines
such as zoology and botany.

Microbiologists are
concerned with
characteristics and
functions such as morphology, cytology,
physiology, ecology,
taxonomy, genetics, and
molecular biology.


Bacteriology: The study of
Mycology: The study of fungi.
Protozoology: The study of protozoa.
Phycology: The study of algae.
Parasitology: The study of parasites.
Immunology: The study of the immune system.
Nano microbiology: The study of those microorganisms at nano level.
Exo microbiology:The study of microorganisms in outer space.
Virology:The study of viruses.
Marine Microbiology:The study of micro-organisms in ocean.

Medical microbiology.
Pharmaceutical microbiology.
Industrial microbiology.
Microbial biotechnology.
Food microbiology.
Dairy microbiology.
Agricultural microbiology.
Veterinary microbiology.
Environmental microbiology.
Water microbiology.

Industrial fermentation.
Production of antibiotics.
Industrial production of amino acids.